TECTONIC PLATES 
 


Theory that the Earth lithosphere (the crust and upper portion of the mantle) is divided into about 12 large plates and several small ones that float on and travel independently over the asthenosphere.
The theory revolutionized the geological sciences in the 1960s by combining the earlier idea of continental drift and the new concept of seafloor spreading into a coherent whole. Each plate consists of rigid rock created by upwelling magma at oceanic ridges, where plates diverge. Where two plates converge, a subduction zone forms, in which one plate is forced under another and into the Earth%u2019s mantle. The majority of the earthquakes and volcanoeso the Earth%u2019s surface occur along the margins of tectonic plates. The interior of a plate moves as a rigid body, with only minor flexing, few earthquakes, and relatively little volcanic activity.

  The earth's surface is broken into seven large and many small moving plates. (see map) These plates, each about 50 miles thick, move relative to one another an average of a few inches a year. Three types of movement are recognized at the boundaries between plates: convergent, divergent and transform-fault.
At convergent boundaries, plates move toward each other and collide. Where an oceanic plate collides with a continental plate, the oceanic plate tips down and slides beneath the continental plate forming a deep ocean trench (long, narrow, deep basin.) An example of this type of movement, called subduction, occurs at the boundary between the oceanic Nazca Plate and the continental South American Plate. Where continental plates collide, they form major mountain systems such as the Himalayas.
At divergent boundaries, plates move away from each other such as at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Where plates diverge, hot, molten rock rises and cools adding new material to the edges of the oceanic plates. This process is known as sea-floor spreading.
At transform-fault boundaries, plates move horizontally past each other. The San Andreas Fault zone is an example of this type of boundary where the Pacific Plate on which Los Angeles sits is moving slowly northwestward relative to the North American Plate on which San Francisco sits.
Plate tectonics, the branch of science that deals with the process by which rigid plates are moved across hot molten material, has helped to explain much in global-scale geology including the formation of mountains, and the distribution of earthquakes and volcanoes.

 

Most submarine volcanoes occur where tectonic plates are either moving apart or colliding. This image shows the many types of plate boundaries: convergent, transform, divergent, and continental rift zone. The Explorer Ridge is a divergent plate boundary at an ocean spreading ridge in the eastern Pacific, where new oceanic crust is formed. The Mariana Island Arc, on the other end of the conveyor belt in the western Pacific, was formed by the melting of the subducting Pacific Plate. (Image courtesy of USGS website. Cross section by Jose F. Vigil from This Dynamic Planet.) Image courtesy of Submarine Ring of Fire 2002, NOAA/OER.